European and Regional Indicators

EU Marine Regions and Sub-regions. Source EEA

The marine environment assessments are typically informed by indicators which draw from monitoring data in a structured manner for each assessment topic. The indicators can cover all aspects of the DPSIR framework, but are generally more focused on pressures, state and impacts. The indicator assessments provide detailed information including the matrices, metrics and methods used, as well as the results. In the present section, a list of indicators is provided either used in the context of the Regional Sea Conventions work, or published by the European Environment Agency with a pan-European coverage.

SourceName of indicatorTypeThemeSub-theme
OSPARGrey Seal Pup ProductionStateSpeciesMammals
OSPARMarine Bird Breeding Success or FailureStateSpeciesBirds
OSPARHarbour Porpoise BycatchImpactExtraction of speciesIncidental by-catch
OSPARTrends in New Records of Non-Indigenous Species (NIS)
Introduced by Human Activities
PressureNon-indigenous speciesInput of non-indigenous species
OSPARSize Composition in Fish CommunitiesStateSpeciesFish
OSPARRecovery in the Population Abundance of Sensitive Fish SpeciesStateSpeciesFish
OSPARWinter Nutrient Concentrations in the Greater North Sea, Kattegat and SkagerrakPressureEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
OSPARConcentrations of Chlorophyll-a in the Greater North Sea and Celtic SeasImpactEutrophicationChlorophyll-a concentration
OSPARTrends in Blooms of the Nuisance Phytoplankton Species Phaeocystis in Belgian, Dutch and German WatersImpactEutrophicationPhytoplankton blooms
OSPARConcentrations of Dissolved Oxygen Near the SeafloorImpactEutrophicationOxygen
OSPARExtent of Physical Damage to Predominant and Special HabitatsImpactPhysical damageExtent of physical Damage
OSPARStatus and Trend for Heavy Metals (Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead) in Fish and ShellfishPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARStatus and Trend for Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Mercury and Lead) in SedimentPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARTrends of Organotin in Sediments in the Southern North SeaPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARStatus and Trends in the Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SedimentPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARStatus and Trends in the Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ShellfishPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARTrends in Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in SedimentsPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARTrends in Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Fish and ShellfishPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARStatus and Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in Fish and ShellfishPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARStatus and Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in SedimentPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
OSPARStatus and Trends in the Levels of Imposex in Marine Gastropods (TBT in Shellfish)ImpactContaminantsEffects in organisms
OSPARBeach Litter - Abundance, Composition and TrendsPressureMarine litterBeach litter
OSPARComposition and Spatial Distribution of Litter on the SeafloorPressureMarine litterLitter on the seafloor
OSPARDistribution of Reported Impulsive SoundsPressureUnderwater noiseImpulsive noise
OSPARNutrient Inputs to the Greater North Sea and the Bay of Biscay and Iberian CoastPressureEutrophicationInput of nutrients
OSPARSeal Abundance and DistributionStateSpeciesMammals
OSPARAbundance and Distribution of Coastal Bottlenose DolphinsStateSpeciesMammals
OSPARAbundance and Distribution of CetaceansStateSpeciesMammals
OSPARMarine Bird AbundanceStateSpeciesBirds
OSPARSize Composition in Fish CommunitiesStateEcosystemFish
OSPARPilot Assessment of Mean Maximum Length of FishStateSpeciesFish
OSPARPilot assessment of Changes in Plankton DiversityStateEcosystemPlankton diversity
OSPARCondition of Benthic Habitat Communities: the Common Conceptual ApproachStateHabitatsBenthic habitats
OSPARProportion of Large Fish (Large Fish Index)StateEcosystemFish
OSPARPlastic Particles in Fulmar Stomachs in the North Sea)PressureMarine litterLitter ingested
OSPARChange in Average Trophic Level of Marine Predators in the Bay of BiscayStateEcosystemPredators
OSPARPilot Assessment of Production of PhytoplanktonStateEcosystemPhytoplankton production
OSPARInputs of Mercury, Cadmium and Lead via Water and Air to the Greater North SeaPressureContaminantsInput of contaminants
HELCOMDistribution of Baltic sealsStateSpeciesMammals
HELCOMNumber of Drowned Mammals and Waterbirds in Fishing GearImpactExtraction of speciesBy-catch
HELCOMCommercial FishingImpactExtraction of speciesCommercially exploited fish
HELCOMTrends in arrival of New Non-Indigenous SpeciesPressureNon-indigenous speciesInput of non-indigenous species
HELCOMDissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN)PressureEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
HELCOMDissolved inorganic phosphorous (DIP)PressureEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
HELCOMChlorophyll-aImpactEutrophicationChlorophyll-a concentration
HELCOMWater ClarityImpactEutrophicationTransparency
HELCOMOxygen DebtImpactEutrophicationOxygen
HELCOMState of the Soft-Bottom Macrofauna Community StateHabitatsMacrofauna communities
HELCOMTributyltin (TBT) and ImposexImpactContaminantsEffects in organisms
HELCOMAbundance of Waterbirds in the Breeding Season StateSpeciesBirds
HELCOMAbundance of Waterbirds in the Wintering SeasonStateSpeciesBirds
HELCOMAbundance of Salmon Spawners and Smolt StateSpeciesFish
HELCOMAbundance of Sea Trout Spawners and ParrStateSpeciesFish
HELCOMAbundance of Key Coastal Fish SpeciesStateSpeciesFish
HELCOMPopulation trends and abundance of sealsStateSpeciesMammals
HELCOMNutritional status of sealsStateSpeciesMammals
HELCOMReproductive status of sealsStateSpeciesMammals
HELCOMProportion of Large Fish in the Community StateEcosystemFish
HELCOMAbundance of Coastal Fish Key Functional GroupsStateEcosystemFish
HELCOMZooplankton mean size and total stock (MSTS)StateEcosystemZooplankton
HELCOMMetals (lead, cadmium and mercury) PressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
HELCOMPolyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and
Their Metabolites 
PressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
HELCOMPCB, Dioxin and FuranPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
HELCOMHexabromocyclodocecane (HBCDD)PressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
HELCOMPerfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS)PressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
HELCOMPolybrominated diphenyl Ethers (PBDE)PressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
HELCOMRadioactive substances:
Cesium-137 in fish and surface seawater
HELCOMCyanobacteria bloom index (CyaBI)ImpactEutrophicationPhytoplankton blooms
HELCOMInput of Nitrogen and Phosphorus to the Baltic Sea (2012-2014)PressureEutrophicationInput of nutrients
HELCOMOperational Oil Spills from Ships PressureContaminantsInput of contaminants
HELCOMTotal nitrogen (TN)PressureEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
HELCOMTotal phosphorus (TP)PressureEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
HELCOMReproductive Disorders: Malformed Embryos of
ImpactContaminantsEffects in organisms
HELCOMWhite tailed eagle productivityImpactContaminantsEffects in organisms
UNEP/MAPConcentration of key nutrients in water columnPressureEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
UNEP/MAPChlorophyll-a concentration in water columnPressureEutrophicationChlorophyll-a concentration
UNEP/MAPConcentration of key harmful contaminants measured in the relevant matrixPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
UNEP/MAPLevel of pollution effects of key contaminants where a cause and effect relationship has been establishedImpactContaminantsEffects in organisms
UNEP/MAPOccurrence, origin (where possible), extent of acute pollution events, and their impact on biota affected by this pollutionImpactContaminantsInput of contaminants
UNEP/MAPActual levels of contaminants that have been detected and number of contaminants which have exceeded maximum regulatory levels in commonly consumed seafoodImpactContaminantsContaminants concentration
UNEP/MAPPercentage of intestinal enterococci concentration measurements within established standardsPressureContaminantsMicrobial pathogens
UNEP/MAPTrends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines (including analysis of its composition, spatial distribution and, where possible, source)PressureMarine litterBeach litter
UNEP/MAPTrends in the amount of litter in the water column including microplastics and on the seafloorPressureMarine litterLitter in the water column
UNEP/MAPHabitat distributional range & Condition of the habitat’s typical species and communitiesStateHabitatsBenthic habitats
UNEP/MAPSpecies distributional range - Marine MammalsStateSpeciesMammals
UNEP/MAPSpecies distributional range - SeabirdsStateSpeciesSeabirds
UNEP/MAPSpecies distributional range - Marine TurtlesStateSpeciesReptiles
UNEP/MAPPopulation abundance of selected species - SeabirdsStateSpeciesSeabirds
UNEP/MAPPopulation abundance of selected species - Marine MammalsStateSpeciesMammals
UNEP/MAPPopulation abundance of selected species - Marine ReptilesStateSpeciesReptiles
UNEP/MAPPopulation demographic characteristics - SeabirdsStateSpeciesSeabirds
UNEP/MAPPopulation demographic characteristics - Marine MammalsStateSpeciesMammals
UNEP/MAPPopulation demographic characteristics - Marine ReptilesStateSpeciesReptiles
UNEP/MAPTrends in abundance, temporal occurrence, and spatial distribution of non-indigenous species, particularly invasive, non-indigenous species,notably in risk areas,in relation to the main vectors and pathways of spreading of such speciesImpactNon-indigenous speciesEstablished NIS
UNEP/MAPSpawning stock BiomassImpactExtraction of speciesCommercially exploited fish
UNEP/MAPTotal landingsImpactExtraction of speciesCommercially exploited fish
UNEP/MAPFishing MortalityImpactExtraction of speciesCommercially exploited fish
UNEP/MAPLocation and extent of the habitats impacted directly by hydrographic alterationsImpactHydrographical conditionsPermanent alterations
UNEP/MAPLength of coastline subject to physical disturbance due to the influence of manmade structuresImpactPhysical disturbanceCoastline
EEAMarine protected areas in Europe's seasResponseMarine Protected AreasCoverage
EEAPathways of introduction of marine non-indigenous speciesPressureNon-indigenous speciesInput of non-indigenous species
EEATrends in marine non-indigenous speciesPressureNon-indigenous speciesInput of non-indigenous species
EEAAquaculture productionActivityCultivation of speciesAquaculture
EEAFishing fleet pressurePressureExtraction of speciesCommercially exploited fish
EEAStatus of marine fish stocksStateExtraction of speciesCommercially exploited fish
EEAChlorophyll in transitional, coastal and marine watersStateEutrophicationChlorophyll-a concentration
EEANutrients in transitional, coastal and marine watersStateEutrophicationNutrient concentrations
EEAHazardous substances in marine organismsPressureContaminantsContaminants concentration
EEAGlobal and European sea levelStateClimate changeSea level
EEASea surface temperatureStateClimate changeSea temperature
EEAOcean oxygen contentStateClimate changeOxygen content
EEAChanges in fish distribution in European seasStateClimate changeSpecies distribution
EEAOcean acidificationStateClimate changeAcidification
EEAOcean heat contentStateClimate changeHeat content
EEAArctic and Baltic sea iceStateClimate changeSea ice