Hungary

Overview: urban waste water production and its treatment

In -, households and certain industries in - urban areas generate NaN million p.e. of waste water every day, which is an amount equivalent to around - million bathtubs or - million m3.

However, urban waste water needs to be treated before discharge, in order to avoid pollution to the environment. In -, urban waste water is treated in - plants across the country before it is discharged.

Figure 1
Number of treatment plants by type of treatment

-

Biological treatment with - removal

-

Biological treatment

-

Primary treatment

 

Map view 1: Zoom in to check the treatment plant of your interest (pop up window with detailed information opens when clicking on a point in the map)

Footnotes

Figure 2
Amount of urban waste water which is required to be collected and treated according to the UWWTD

Amount of waste water (in million p.e.)

NaN
Total generated

NaN
Collection

NaN
Biological treatment

NaN
Biological treatment with - removal

What are the targets for urban waste water collection and treatment in -?

According to the UWWTD, - is required to provide in urban areas:

  • Collection of NaN million p.e. of waste water
  • Biological treatment to NaN million p.e. of waste water
  • Biological treatment with - removal to NaN million p.e. of waste water

In addition, for NaN million p.e. of urban waste water - does not need to apply biological treatment, because this is waste water discharged into coastal areas from smaller urban areas (below 10 000 p.e.). These alternatives are allowed by the legislation, as long as the environment is adequately protected.

This is why the amount of urban waste water that needs biological treatment (NaN million p.e.) is lower than the collected urban waste water (NaN million p.e).

Has - met the targets for urban waste water collection and treatment?

Figure 3
Amount of urban waste water which still needs to be collected or treated according to the requirements of the UWWTD

Distance to target in million p.e.

 

Overall, NaN% of the urban waste water in - is treated according to the requirements of the UWWTD. This is - the EU average of NaN%.

Figure 4
The proportion of urban waste water that meets all requirements of the UWWTD (collection, biological treatment, biological treatment with nitrogen and/or phosphorus removal) in compliant urban areas

Compliance rate %

 

Map view 2: Zoom in to check if urban waste water in the urban area of your interest is collected and treated according to the requirements of the UWWTD
(pop up window with detailed information opens when clicking on a point in the map)

What progress has - made in meeting its targets for urban waste water collection and treatment?

Between 2014 and 2018, -:

  • - the required target for collection of urban waste water
  • - the required target for biological treatment of urban waste water
  • - the required target for biological treatment of urban waste water with - removal

Figure 5
Recent trends in the amount of urban waste water which is not collected or treated according to the requirements of the UWWTD

Distance to target in million p.e.

Collection

 

Biological treatment

 

Biological treatment with - removal

 

Does - reuse treated urban waste water?

-

Is there a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions by the urban waste water treatment sector in -?

In -, emissions of greenhouse gases by the urban waste water treatment sector have - by NaN% between - and 2019.

Figure 7
Trends in emission of greenhouse gases by the urban waste water treatment sector

Kt CO2 eq

 

How does - protect its most sensitive waters from algal blooms?

Too much nitrogen or phosphorus in water can cause algal blooms. This may affect fish, bathers and the wider environment negatively.

- designated - of its territory as sensitive areas and decided that agglomerations over 10 000 p.e. discharging into sensitive areas must apply biological treatment with -.

Map view 4: Zoom in to check if the treatment plant in the urban area of your interest discharges into a sensitive area
(pop up window with detailed information opens when clicking on a point in the map)

By implementing the Water Framework Directive, countries have assessed the quality of national waters, including surface water bodies (e.g. rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal waters) and groundwater bodies. In addition, they have identified the pressures that contribute to less than good water quality (i.e. poor chemical status or less than good ecological status for their surface water bodies, and poor chemical status for their groundwater bodies).

Figure 8
Percentage of different water body types having less than good water quality, and being affected significantly by discharges of urban waste water, discharges from unconnected dwellings and storm water overflows in the latest RBMPs

Percentage of surface water bodies (%) or groundwater bodies area (%)

 

Are waste water discharges a significant pressure for waters in -?

According to the latest River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs) in -:

  • Discharges of urban waste water contribute significantly to less than good water quality in:
    • 0.0% of river water bodies
    • 0.0% of lake water bodies
    • 0.0% of transitional water bodies
    • 0.0% of coastal water bodies
    • 0.0% of groundwater bodies area
  • Discharges of waste water from unconnected dwellings contribute significantly to less than good water quality in:
    • 0.0% of river water bodies
    • 0.0% of lake water bodies
    • 0.0% of transitional water bodies
    • 0.0% of coastal water bodies
    • 0.0% of groundwater bodies area

  • Discharges of storm water overflows contribute significantly to less than good water quality in:
    • 0.0% of river water bodies
    • 0.0% of lake water bodies
    • 0.0% of transitional water bodies
    • 0.0% of coastal water bodies
    • 0.0% of groundwater bodies area

Is there an increase in the number of monitored bathing water sites with excellent water quality in -?

The monitored bathing water sites with excellent water quality in - have - between 2010 (- sites) and - (- sites).

It is noted that bathing water sites are not necessarily affected by direct discharges of urban waste water. Therefore, observed water quality problems can also be related to other activities.

Figure 9
Progress in the number of monitored bathing water sites having excellent water quality in recent years

Number of monitored bathing water sites

 

You may check the status of the bathing waters of - by clicking on the link and selecting the country from the available list.

More information

As Hungary applies Article 5(4) the statistics above on biological treatment with nitrogen and phosphorus removal are a general reflection of the compliance rate.

The generalised compliance data for Article 5 are shown to make a comparison possible with agglomeration-based data for Articles 3 and 4. The method for calculation of distance to target is the same for all Member States regardless of whether or not they apply Article 5(4).

Hungary applies Article 5(4) of the Directive and therefore the compliance rate with Article 5 is calculated differently than individually by agglomeration. In 2018, more than 75% of total nitrogen and of total phosphorus were removed from the collected waste water load in all Hungarian Article 5(4) sensitive areas; which are therefore compliant.

In Figure 5, the distance to target for more stringent treatment in 2016 in 2016 and 2018 is different from 2014 data due to the change in interpretation of sensitive areas. In 2014, Hungary reported that most of the territory was a normal area, with 3 designated sensitive areas compliant. For 2016 and 2018, Hungary reported 3 sensitive areas, and one area covering the remaining territory, which is designated as the catchment area of the Danube.

Data sources used in the Country Profiles

Text, Figure 1-6 , Map view 1-4: Waterbase - UWWTD: Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive – reported data

Text and Figure 7: EEA greenhouse gases - data viewer 

Text and Figure 8- WFD: WISE WFD Database: reported data

Text and Figure 9 - Bathing water
Bathing Water Directive: Status of bathing water: reported data

Other European Information Systems: